Epictetus (c. 50-135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher born at Hierapolis, Phrygia, who lived in Rome until his exile to Nicopolis in Greece, where he spent most of his life and died. His teachings were written down by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses. Epictetus taught that philosophy is a way of life, not just a theoretical discipline. The idea that we should only focus our efforts on what is inside our sphere of choice and that we ought to train ourselves to be indifferent to what is outside that sphere is repeated throughout his Discourses and these Fragments. To Epictetus, all external events are beyond our control, and we should calmly accept whatever happens. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through self-discipline.