Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1841-1935) is generally considered one of the two greatest justices of the United States Supreme Court. In more than 2000 opinions, he delineated an impressive legal philosophy that profoundly influenced American jurisprudence, particularly in the area of civil liberties and judicial restraint. In The Common Law, derived from a series of lectures delivered at the Lowell Institute in Boston, Holmes systematized his legal doctrines.
The Will to Power is an audiobook of notes compiled from the literary remains of Friedrich Nietzsche. The title derives from a work that Nietzsche himself had intended to write. The "will to power", a prominent concept in his philosophy, describes what Nietzsche believed to be the main driving force in humans.
Creative Evolution is a 1907 book by the French philosopher Henri Bergson. The work proposes a version of orthogenesis in place of Darwin's mechanism of evolution, suggesting that evolution is motivated by the “élan vital”, a vital impetus that may also be understood as a natural creative impulse. The book also developed concepts of time which influenced writers like Marcel Proust and Thomas Mann. Bergson's term "duration", for example, refers to an individual, subjective experience of time, as opposed to the mathematical, objectively measurable clock time.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) has influenced philosophers such as Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Oswald Spengler, George Grant, Emil Cioran, Albert Camus, Ayn Rand, Jacques Derrida, Leo Strauss, Max Scheler, Michel Foucault and Bernard Williams. His writings on aesthetics, language, truth, morality, cultural theory, history, nihilism, power, and the meaning of existence have exerted a vast influence on Western philosophy and intellectual history.
The title of this work does not refer to the biblical Antichrist but is a criticism of institutionalized religion and the priestly class. The book is an attack on what Nietzsche considered the "slave morality" and apathy of Western Christianity. Nietzsche argues that Christianity poisons western culture and perverts the words of and practice of Jesus.
On the Genealogy of Morals: A Polemic is an 1887 work by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It consists of a preface and three interconnected essays that expand on concepts Nietzsche first raised in Beyond Good and Evil (1886). The three essays question and critique the value of our moral judgments based on a method whereby Nietzsche examines the origins and meanings of our different moral concepts.
"The Twilight of the Idols" was written by Nietzsche in 1888 as a short introduction to his work. In it, he labels the era’s German culture as decadent and nihilistic, and criticizes certain British, French and Italian cultural figures who, in his view, represented similar tendencies. By decadence, he means a fading of life, vitality and an embrace of weakness. In contrast to those alleged representatives of cultural decadence, Nietzsche holds up historical personages like Julius Caesar, Napoleon, Goethe, Thucydides and the Sophist philosophers as healthier types.
Ecce Homo, subtitled How One Becomes What One Is, is the final original book written by Friedrich Nietzsche before he succumbed to the insanity which lasted until his death in 1900. In this extraordinary autobiography, Nietzsche chronicles his life and development as a philosopher, his tastes as an individual, and his vision for humanity.
Thus Spake Zarathustra is a philosophical novel by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. The work’s hybrid narrative encompasses philosophical sayings, fiction, and poetry, and also serves as a parody of and amendment to the Bible. The plot, a chronicle of fictitious speeches and travels attributed to the ancient sage Zarathustra or Zoroaster, emerges only sporadically throughout the text. Quite different from the historical figure, Nietzsche’s Zarathustra turns morality around and severely criticizes religion, which he views as "the worship of death".
Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits was originally published in 1878. The work is Nietzsche's first in the aphoristic style and discusses a range of concepts in brief paragraphs. It represents the start of Nietzsche's "middle period", in which he breaks with German Romanticism and Wagner.
James Wilson (1742-1798) was one of the founding fathers of the US and a signatory of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. A leading legal theorist, he was one of the six original justices appointed to the Supreme Court. In this work, he argues that man does not exist for the sake of government but that government exists for the sake of man.