"The Twilight of the Idols" was written by Nietzsche in 1888 as a short introduction to his work. In it, he labels the era’s German culture as decadent and nihilistic, and criticizes certain British, French and Italian cultural figures who, in his view, represented similar tendencies. By decadence, he means a fading of life, vitality and an embrace of weakness. In contrast to those alleged representatives of cultural decadence, Nietzsche holds up historical personages like Julius Caesar, Napoleon, Goethe, Thucydides and the Sophist philosophers as healthier types. The book presents a view of antiquity in which the Romans take precedence over the ancient Greeks in the field of literature.